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What is a sole trader?

A sole trader is an individual who is both self-employed and the sole owner of their business, providing complete control but also unlimited personal liability. Typically, sole traders are small businesses offering services to individuals and families, such as photographers, plumbers, or hairdressers.

Sole Trader

The Difference Between a Sole Trader and Being Self-Employed

It's essential to clarify the distinction between being a sole trader and simply being self-employed. The key difference lies in the business structure. A sole trader is both self-employed and the sole owner of their business. In contrast, if you are self-employed but operate in a partnership or run a limited company, you do not fall under the category of a sole trader. It's important to understand your business structure as it has various legal and financial implications.

Advantages of Being a Sole Trader

1. Quick Setup

Starting as a sole trader is simple. No complex registration processes; just inform HMRC of your self-employed status.

2. Easier Accounting


Sole traders have more straightforward accounting requirements, reducing costs. Maintain records of income, expenses, and report profits in your annual Self Assessment.

3. Profit Control


Unlike limited companies, sole traders keep all profits after taxes. You have full control over business assets.

4. Privacy


Sole traders have more privacy as they don't need to disclose information to Companies House, keeping financial details confidential.

5. Flexibility 


Sole traders can make quick decisions independently, particularly valuable in one-on-one client interactions.

6. Easy Transition


Starting as a sole trader offers a low-risk entry into the business world, with the flexibility to transition to a limited company if needed.

Disadvantages of Being a Sole Trader

1. Unlimited Liability


Sole traders face the risk of unlimited liability, where personal assets are at stake if business debts cannot be met, including the potential loss of your home.

2. Limited Prestige


Attracting certain clients can be challenging, as some perceive sole traders as higher risk or less prestigious, impacting opportunities, especially for freelancers and contractors.

3. Tax Limitations


Sole traders have fewer tax benefits compared to limited companies, resulting in potential tax inefficiencies, especially when earning substantial profits.

4. Business Continuity Risk


In case of accidents or illness, sole traders are solely responsible for fulfilling contracts, which can lead to stress and financial difficulties. Business insurance is essential for mitigation.

Registering as a Sole Trader

Registering as a sole trader is a straightforward process. To get started, follow these steps:


1. Contact HMRC to inform them of your self-employed status and intention to pay taxes as a sole trader.


2. Complete the HMRC registration form for self-assessment, either online or by post.


3. Activate your HMRC online account. Once you've submitted the registration form, HMRC will send you a 10-digit Unique Taxpayer Reference and an activation code for your online account.


4. Complete your annual self-assessment tax returns using the online account you've set up.


It's worth noting that there is no requirement to register with Companies House as a sole trader, which simplifies the administrative burden associated with running your business.

Tax Obligations for Sole Traders

Sole traders are required to pay income tax, as well as Class 2 and Class 4 National Insurance (NI) contributions on their taxable business profits. Here's a breakdown of income tax rates for sole traders:


- Personal Allowance: Up to £12,500 - 0% tax rate

- Basic Rate: £12,501 - £50,000 - 20% tax rate

- Higher Rate: £50,001 - £150,000 - 40% tax rate

- Additional Rate: Over £150,000 - 45% tax rate


The tax you owe depends on your taxable income after applying the personal allowance. For example, if your taxable income falls within the basic rate, you'll pay 20% tax on that portion.


In addition to income tax, sole traders with business profits over £6,475 must pay Class 2 NI contributions, which currently amount to £158.60 per year.


 If your profits exceed £9,500, you'll also be liable for Class 4 NI contributions, which are calculated as a percentage of your total profits reported in your Self Assessment.

How to Pay Tax as a Sole Trader

After completing your self-assessment return and calculating the tax you owe, you can make your tax payments to HMRC through various methods, including debit card, credit card, online banking, CHAPS, or by visiting your bank. Ensuring you meet your tax obligations in a timely manner is essential to avoid penalties and legal consequences.

The Value of an Accountant for Sole Traders

Accountants can be invaluable for sole traders. While sole traders have fewer accounting obligations compared to limited companies, an accountant can assist with your annual self-assessment, track invoices and expenses, and calculate your tax liability accurately. The complexity of personal allowances and tax-deductible expenses can make tax calculations intricate, and an accountant's expertise can ensure you pay the right amount. Additionally, accountants can help you optimize your tax efficiency, ultimately saving you money.

If you have questions or require further guidance on being a sole trader, feel free to contact us for personalized advice and support. We're here to help you navigate the intricacies of running your business as a sole trader.

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